Welcome! We are thrilled you are interested in contributing to Sciris. (No, seriously.) This document will help you get started.

  • We are serious about inclusion and believe the open-source software community still has a long way to go. The Sciris community follows a code of conduct. By participating in this project, you agree to abide by its terms.

  • Take a look at our house style guide. Sciris more or less follows Google’s Python style guide, but with some exceptions.

  • Feel free to open an issue on more or less anything! This project is small enough that we don’t need a formal triage system.

  • Pull requests should be made against develop. In addition to following the style guide, please make sure the tests pass (run_tests in the tests folder; they also run via GitHub actions).

If you have any other questions, please reach out to us: Thank you!

Code of conduct#

Our pledge#

In the interest of fostering an open and welcoming environment, we as contributors and maintainers pledge to making participation in our project and our community a harassment-free experience for everyone, regardless of age, body size, disability, ethnicity, sex characteristics, gender identity and expression, level of experience, education, socio-economic status, nationality, personal appearance, race, religion, or sexual identity and orientation.

Our standards#

Examples of behavior that contributes to creating a positive environment include:

  • Using welcoming and inclusive language

  • Being respectful of differing viewpoints and experiences

  • Gracefully accepting constructive criticism

  • Focusing on what is best for the community

  • Showing empathy towards other community members

Examples of unacceptable behavior by participants include:

  • The use of sexualized language or imagery and unwelcome sexual attention or advances

  • Trolling, insulting/derogatory comments, and personal or political attacks

  • Public or private harassment

  • Publishing others’ private information, such as a physical or electronic address, without explicit permission

  • Other conduct which could reasonably be considered inappropriate in a professional setting

Our responsibilities#

Project maintainers are responsible for clarifying the standards of acceptable behavior and are expected to take appropriate and fair corrective action in response to any instances of unacceptable behavior.

Project maintainers have the right and responsibility to remove, edit, or reject comments, commits, code, wiki edits, issues, and other contributions that are not aligned to this Code of Conduct, or to ban temporarily or permanently any contributor for other behaviors that they deem inappropriate, threatening, offensive, or harmful.


This Code of Conduct applies both within project spaces and in public spaces when an individual is representing the project or its community. Examples of representing a project or community include using an official project e-mail address, posting via an official social media account, or acting as an appointed representative at an online or offline event. Representation of a project may be further defined and clarified by project maintainers.


Instances of abusive, harassing, or otherwise unacceptable behavior may be reported by contacting the project team at All complaints will be reviewed and investigated and will result in a response that is deemed necessary and appropriate to the circumstances. The project team is obligated to maintain confidentiality with regard to the reporter of an incident. Further details of specific enforcement policies may be posted separately.

Project maintainers who do not follow or enforce the Code of Conduct in good faith may face temporary or permanent repercussions as determined by other members of the project’s leadership.


This Code of Conduct is adapted from the Contributor Covenant, version 1.4, available at

For answers to common questions about this code of conduct, see the FAQ.

Style guide#

In general, Sciris follows Google’s style guide. If you simply follow that, you can’t go too wrong. However, there are a few “house style” differences, which are described here.

Design philosophy#

Sciris is intended to make life easier, and the code should reflect that. Assume that the average Sciris user dislikes coding and wants something that just works. Specifically:

  • Commands should be short, simple, and obvious. If you can’t think of a name that isn’t all of those things, that suggests the command might not have broad enough use to fit in Sciris. (But there are exceptions, of course.)

  • Be as flexible as possible with user inputs. If a user could only mean one thing, do that. If the user provides [0, 7, 14] but the function needs an array instead of a list, convert the list to an array automatically (sc.toarray() exists for exactly this reason).

  • If there’s a “sensible” default value for something, use it. Explicit is better than implicit, but implicit is better than wearyingly nitpicky.

  • Err on the side of more comments, including line comments. Logic that is clear to you now might not be clear to anyone else (or yourself 3 months from now).

House style#

As noted above, Sciris follows Google’s style guide (GSG), with these exceptions (numbers refer to Google’s style guide):

2.8 Default Iterators and Operators (GSG28)#

Difference: It’s fine to use for key in obj.keys(): ... instead of for key in obj: ....

Reason: In larger functions with complex data types, it’s not immediately obvious what type an object is. While for key in obj: ... is fine, especially if it’s clear that obj is a dict, for key in obj.keys(): ... is also acceptable if it improves clarity.

2.21 Type Annotated Code (GSG221)#

Difference: Do not use type annotations.

Reason: Type annotations are useful for ensuring that simple functions do exactly what they’re supposed to as part of a complex whole. They prioritize consistency over convenience, which is the correct priority for very low-level library functions, but not for functions and classes that aim to make it as easy as possible for the user.

For example, in Sciris, dates can be specified as numbers (22), strings ('2022-02-02'), or date objects (, 2, 2)), etc. Likewise, many quantities can be specified as a scalar, list, or array. If a function usually only needs a single input but can optionally operate on more than one, it adds burden on the user to require them to provide e.g. np.array([0.3]) rather than just 0.3. In addition, most functions have default arguments of None, in which case Sciris will use “sensible” defaults.

Attempting to apply type annotations to the flexibility Sciris gives to the user would result in monstrosities like:

def count_days(self, start_day: typing.Union[None, str, int,, dt.datetime, pd.Timestamp],
               end_day: typing.Union[None, str, int,, dt.datetime, pd.Timestamp]) -> int:
    return -

If your function is written in such a way that type definitions would be helpful, consider if there is a way to rewrite it such that (a) it can accept a wider range of inputs, and/or (b) you can make it clearer what is allowed. For example, values should likely accept a list or array of any numeric type; label should be a single string; labels should be a list of strings.

Note that you can (and should) use type annotations in your docstrings. For example, the above method could be written as:

def countdays(self, startday, endday):
    """ Count days between start and end relative to "sim time"

        startday (int/str/date): The day to start counting
        endday   (int/str/date): The day to stop counting

        Number of days elapsed


        sc.countdays(45, '2022-02-02')
    return -

3.2 Line length (GSG32)#

Difference: Long lines are not great, but are justified in some circumstances.

Reason: Line lengths of 80 characters are due to historical limitations. Think of lines >80 characters as bad, but breaking a line as being equally bad. Decide whether a long line would be better implemented some other way – for example, rather than breaking a >80 character list comprehension over multiple lines, use a for loop instead. Always keep literal strings together (do not use implicit string concatenation).

Line comments are encouraged in Sciris, and these can be as long as needed; they should not be broken over multiple lines to avoid breaking the flow of the code. A 50-character line with a 150 character line comment after it is completely fine. The rationale is that long line comments only need to be read very occasionally; if they are broken up over multiple lines, then they have to be scrolled past every single time. Since scrolling vertically is such a common task, it is important to minimize the amount of effort required (i.e., minimizing lines) while not sacrificing clarity. Vertically compact code also means more will fit on your screen (and thence your brain).


# Yes: it's a bit longer than 80 chars but not too bad
foo_bar(self, width, height, color='black', design=None, x='foo', emphasis=None)

# No: the cost of breaking the line is too high
foo_bar(self, width, height, color='black', design=None, x='foo',

# No: line is needlessly long, rename variables to be more concise to avoid the need to break
foo_bar(self, object_width, object_height, text_color='black', text_design=None, x='foo', text_emphasis=None)

# No: line is too long
foo_bar(self, width, height, design=None, x='foo', emphasis=None, fg_color='black', bg_color='white', frame_color='orange')

# Yes: if you do need to break a line, try to break at a semantically meaningful point
foo_bar(self, width, height, design=None, x='foo', emphasis=None,
        fg_color='black', bg_color='white', frame_color='orange')

# Yes: long line comments are ok
foo_bar(self, width, height, color='black', design=None, x='foo') # Note the difference with bar_foo(), which does not perform the opposite operation

3.5 Blank Lines (GSG35)#

Difference: Always use (at least) one extra blank line between levels as within a level.

Reason: Google’s recommendation (two blank lines between functions or classes, one blank line between methods) is appropriate for small-to-medium classes and methods. However, for large methods (e.g. >50 lines) with multiple blank lines within them, using only a single blank line can mark it hard to tell where one method stops and the next one starts. Thus, for a method that contains blank lines within itself, use two blank lines between methods (and then do that consistently for the rest of the class). For separating large classes/functions (>500 lines), or classes whose methods are separated by two blank lines, separating them by three blank lines is preferable.

While not explicitly covered by the Google style guide, return statements should be used at the end of each function and method, even if that block returns None (in which case use return, not return None). This helps delimit larger methods/functions. However, always ask whether a function/method should return None; if a function can return something that might be useful, it should.

3.6 Whitespace (GSG36)#

Difference: You should use spaces to vertically align tokens.

Reason: This convention, which is a type of semantic indenting, can greatly increase readability of the code by drawing attention to the semantic similarities and differences between consecutive lines. (However, if you have too many very similar consecutive lines, ask yourself if it could be turned into a loop or otherwise automated.)

Vertically aligned code blocks also make it easier to edit code using editors that allow multiline editing (e.g., Sublime). However, use your judgement – there are cases where it does more harm than good, especially if the block is small, or if egregious amounts of whitespace would need to be used to achieve alignment.

3.8.5 Block and Inline Comments (GSG385)#

Difference: Use either one or two spaces between code and a line comment.

Reason: The advice “Use two spaces to improve readability” dates back to the era when most code was viewed as plain text. Now that virtually all editors have syntax highlighting, it’s no longer really necessary. There’s nothing wrong with two spaces, but if it’s easier to type one space, do it.

3.10 Strings (GSG310)#

Difference: Always use f-strings or addition.

Reason: It’s just nicer. Compared to '{}, {}'.format(first, second) or '%s, %s' % (first, second), f'{first}, {second}' is both shorter and clearer to read. However, use concatenation if it’s simpler, e.g. third = first + second rather than third = f'{first}{second}' (because again, it’s shorter and clearer).

3.13 Imports formatting (GSG313)#

Difference: Group imports logically rather than alphabetically.

Reason: Sort imports as in Google’s style guide, but second-order sorting should be grouped by “level”, e.g. low-level libraries first (e.g. file I/O), then high-level libraries last (e.g., plotting). For example:

import os
import shutil
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import pylab as pl
import seaborn as sns
from . import sc_plotting as scp

Note the logical groupings – standard library imports first, then numeric libraries, with Numpy coming before pandas since it’s lower level; then external plotting libraries; and finally internal imports.

Note also the use of import pylab as pl instead of the more common import matplotlib.pyplot as plt. These are functionally identical; the former is used simply because it is easier to type, but this convention may change to the more standard Matplotlib import in future.

3.14 Statements (GSG314)#

Difference: Multiline statements are sometimes OK.

Reason: Like with semantic indenting, sometimes it causes additional work to break up a simple block of logic vertically. However, use your judgement, and err on the side of Google’s style guide. For example:

# Yes
if foo:

# Yes
if foo:

# Yes, sometimes
if foo: bar(foo)

# Yes, sometimes
if foo: bar(foo)
else:   baz(foo)

# Yes, but maybe rethink your life choices
if   foo == 0: bar(foo)
elif foo == 1: baz(foo)
elif foo == 2: bat(foo)
elif foo == 3: bam(foo)
elif foo == 4: bak(foo)
else:          zzz(foo)

# No: definitely rethink your life choices
if foo == 0:
elif foo == 1:
elif foo == 2:
elif foo == 3:
elif foo == 4:

# OK

# Also OK
try:    bar(foo)
except: pass

# No: too much whitespace and logic too hidden
try:                    bar(foo)
except ValueError as E: baz(foo)

3.16 Naming (GSG316)#

Difference: Names should be consistent with other libraries and with how the user interacts with the code.

Reason: Sciris interacts with other libraries, especially Numpy and Matplotlib, and should not redefine these libraries’ names. For example, Google naming convention would prefer fig_size to figsize, but Matplotlib uses figsize, so this should also be the name preferred by Sciris.

Since Sciris prioritizes ease of use, many classes are given lowercase names (e.g. sc.timer()). This is to parallel libraries like Numpy (e.g. np.array()). In general, classes should only be given standard CamelCase names if they’re not intended to be used by the user (e.g., sc.sc_parallel.TaskArgs).

Names should be as short as they can be while being memorable. This is slightly less strict than being unambiguous. Think of it as: the meaning might not be clear solely from the variable name, but should be clear from the docstring and/or line comment, and from that point should be unambiguous.

Underscores in variable names are generally avoided (e.g. sc.resourcemonitor(), but there are exceptions, especially for keyword arguments that have much higher readability with underscores (e.g. sc.getrowscols(..., remove_extra=True).

Parting words#

If in doubt, ask! GitHub, email (, Slack – all work. And don’t worry about getting it perfect; any differences in style will be reconciled during code review and merge.