class odict(*args, defaultdict=None, **kwargs)[source]#

Bases: dict

Ordered dictionary with integer indexing

An ordered dictionary, like the OrderedDict class, but supports list methods like integer indexing, key slicing, and item inserting. It can also replicate defaultdict behavior via the defaultdict argument.

  • args (dict) – convert an existing dict, e.g. sc.odict({'a':1})

  • defaultdict (class) – if provided, create as a defaultdict as well

  • kwargs (dict) – additional keyword arguments, e.g. sc.odict(a=1)


# Simple example
mydict = sc.odict(foo=[1,2,3], bar=[4,5,6]) # Assignment is the same as ordinary dictionaries
mydict['foo'] == mydict[0] # Access by key or by index
mydict[:].sum() == 21 # Slices are returned as numpy arrays by default
for i,key,value in mydict.enumitems(): # Additional methods for iteration
    print(f'Item {i} is named {key} and has value {value}')

# Detailed example
foo = sc.odict({'ant':3,'bear':4, 'clam':6, 'donkey': 8}) # Create odict
bar = foo.sorted() # Sort the dict
assert bar['bear'] == 4 # Show get item by value
assert bar[1] == 4 # Show get item by index
assert (bar[0:2] == [3,4]).all() # Show get item by slice
assert (bar['clam':'donkey'] == [6,8]).all() # Show alternate slice notation
assert (bar[np.array([2,1])] == [6,4]).all() # Show get item by list
assert (bar[:] == [3,4,6,8]).all() # Show slice with everything
assert (bar[2:] == [6,8]).all() # Show slice without end
bar[3] = [3,4,5] # Show assignment by item
bar[0:2] = ['the', 'power'] # Show assignment by slice
bar[[0,3]] = ['hill', 'trip'] # Show assignment by list
bar.rename('clam','oyster') # Show rename
print(bar) # Print results

# Defaultdict examples
dd = sc.odict(a=[1,2,3], defaultdict=list)

nested = sc.odict(a=0, defaultdict='nested') # Create a infinitely nested dictionary (NB: may behave strangely on IPython)
nested['b']['c']['d'] = 2

Note: by default, integers are used as an alias to string keys, so cannot be used as keys directly. However, you can force regular-dict behavior using setitem(), and you can convert a dictionary with integer keys to an odict using sc.odict.makefrom(). If an odict has integer keys and the keys do not match the key positions, then the key itself will take precedence (e.g., od[3] is equivalent to dict(od)[3], not dict(od)[od.keys()[3]]). This usage is discouraged.

New in version 1.1.0: “defaultdict” argument
New in version 1.3.1: allow integer keys via makefrom(); removed to_OD; performance improvements
New in version 2.0.1: allow deletion by index
New in version 3.0.0: allow numeric indices; inherit from dict rather than OrderedDict
New in version 3.1.1: allow steps in slices; copy() now behaves as a standard dict


setitem(key, value)[source]#

Use regular dictionary setitem, rather than odict’s


Allow two dictionaries to be added (merged).


dict1 = sc.odict(a=3, b=4)
dict2 = sc.odict(c=5, d=7)
dict3 = dict1 + dict2
disp(maxlen=None, showmultilines=True, divider=False, dividerthresh=10, numindents=0, sigfigs=5, numformat=None, maxitems=20, **kwargs)[source]#

Print out flexible representation, short by default.


z = sc.odict().make(keys=['a','b','c'], vals=[4.293487,3,6])
export(doprint=True, classname='odict')[source]#

Export the odict in a form that is valid Python code

pop(key, *args, **kwargs)[source]#

Allows pop to support strings, integers, slices, lists, or arrays

remove(key, *args, **kwargs)[source]#

Remove an item by key and do not return it


Return the index of a given key


Return the index of a given value

findkeys(pattern=None, method=None, first=None)[source]#

Find all keys that match a given pattern. By default uses regex, but other options are ‘find’, ‘startswith’, ‘endswith’. Can also specify whether or not to only return the first result (default false). If the key is a tuple instead of a string, it will search each element of the tuple.

findbykey(pattern=None, method=None, first=True)[source]#

Same as findkeys, but returns values instead

findbyval(value, first=True, strict=False)[source]#

Returns the key(s) that match a given value – reverse of findbykey, except here uses exact matches to the value or values provided.


z = sc.odict({'dog':[2,3], 'cat':[4,6], 'mongoose':[4,6]})
z.findbyval([4,6]) # returns 'cat'
z.findbyval([4,6], first=False) # returns ['cat', 'mongoose']
filter(keys=None, pattern=None, method=None, exclude=False)[source]#

Find matching keys in the odict, and return a new odict

Filter the odict keys and return a new odict which is a subset. If keys is a list, then uses that for matching. If the first argument is a string, then treats as a pattern for matching using findkeys() <odict.findkeys().

  • keys (list) – the list of keys to keep (or exclude)

  • pattern (str) – the pattern by which to match keys; see findkeys() <odict.findkeys() for details

  • method (str) – the method by which to match keys; see findkeys() <odict.findkeys() for details

  • exclude (bool) – if exclude=True, then exclude rather than include matches

See also sort(), which includes filtering by position.


Like filter, but filters by value rather than key

append(key=None, value=None)[source]#

Support an append method, like a list

insert(pos=None, key=None, value=None)[source]#

Function to do insert a key – note, computationally inefficient.


z = sc.odict()
z['foo'] = 1492
z.insert(0, 'ganges', 1444)
z.insert(2, 'mekong', 1234)

Make a (shallow) copy of the dict.


deep (bool) – if True, do a deep rather than shallow copy


d1 = sc.odict(a=[1,2,3], b='foo')
d2 = d1.copy()
d3 = d1.copy(deep=True)

d1.pop('b') # affects d1 but not d2 or d3
d1[0].append(4) # affects d1 and d2 but not d3
rename(oldkey, newkey)[source]#

Change a key name (note: not optimized for speed)

sort(sortby=None, reverse=False, copy=False)[source]#

Create a sorted version of the odict.

By default, this method sorts alphabetically by key, but many other options are possible:

  • ‘keys’ sorts alphabetically by key

  • ‘values’ sorts in ascending order by value

  • if a list of keys is provided, sort by that order (any keys not provided will be omitted from the sorted dict!)

  • if a list of numbers is provided, treat these as indices and sort by that order

  • if a list of boolean values is provided, then omit False entries

  • sortby (str or list) – what to sort by; see above for options

  • reverse (bool) – whether to return results in reverse order

  • copy (bool) – whether to return a copy (same as sorted())

For filtering by string matching on keys, see filter().

New in version 3.0.0: removed “verbose” argument
sorted(sortby=None, reverse=False)[source]#

Shortcut for making a copy of the sorted odict – see sort() for options


Reverse the order of an odict


Shortcut for making a copy of the sorted odict

make(keys=None, vals=None, keys2=None, keys3=None, coerce='full')[source]#

An alternate way of making or adding to an odict.

  • keys (list/int) – the list of keys to use

  • vals (list/arr) – the list of values to use

  • keys2 (list/int) – for a second level of nesting

  • keys3 (list/int) – for a third level of nesting

  • coerce (str) – what types to coerce into being separate dict entries


a = sc.odict().make(5) # Make an odict of length 5, populated with Nones and default key names
b = sc.odict().make('foo',34) # Make an odict with a single key 'foo' of value 34
c = sc.odict().make(['a','b']) # Make an odict with keys 'a' and 'b'
d = sc.odict().make(['a','b'], 0) # Make an odict with keys 'a' and 'b', initialized to 0
e = sc.odict().make(keys=['a','b'], vals=[1,2]) # Make an odict with 'a':1 and 'b':2
f = sc.odict().make(keys=['a','b'], vals=np.array([1,2])) # As above, since arrays are coerced into lists
g = sc.odict({'a':34, 'b':58}).make(['c','d'],[99,45]) # Add extra keys to an exising odict
h = sc.odict().make(keys=['a','b','c'], keys2=['A','B','C'], keys3=['x','y','z'], vals=0) # Make a triply nested odict

New in version 1.2.2: “coerce” argument

classmethod makefrom(source=None, include=None, keynames=None, force=True, *args, **kwargs)[source]#

Create an odict from entries in another dictionary. If keys is None, then use all keys from the current dictionary.

  • source (dict/list/etc) – the item(s) to convert to an odict

  • include (list) – list of keys to include from the source dict in the odict (default: all)

  • keynames (list) – names of keys if source is not a dict

  • force (bool) – whether to force conversion to an odict even if e.g. the source has numeric keys


a = 'cat'
b = 'dog'
o = sc.odict.makefrom(source=locals(), include=['a','b']) # Make use of fact that variables are stored in a dictionary

d = {'a':'cat', 'b':'dog'}
o = sc.odict.makefrom(d) # Same as sc.odict(d)
l = ['cat', 'monkey', 'dog']
o = sc.odict.makefrom(source=l, include=[0,2], keynames=['a','b'])

d = {12:'monkeys', 3:'musketeers'}
o = sc.odict.makefrom(d)

Apply a function to each element of the odict, returning a new odict with the same keys.


cat = sc.odict({'a':[1,2], 'b':[3,4]})
def myfunc(mylist): return [i**2 for i in mylist]
dog = cat.map(myfunc) # Returns odict({'a':[1,4], 'b':[9,16]})
fromeach(ind=None, asdict=True)[source]#

Take a “slice” across all the keys of an odict, applying the same operation to entry. The simplest usage is just to pick an index. However, you can also use it to apply a function to each key.


z = sc.odict({'a':array([1,2,3,4]), 'b':array([5,6,7,8])})
z.fromeach(2) # Returns array([3,7])
z.fromeach(ind=[1,3], asdict=True) # Returns odict({'a':array([2,4]), 'b':array([6,8])})
toeach(ind=None, val=None)[source]#

The inverse of fromeach: partially reset elements within each odict key.


z = sc.odict({'a':[1,2,3,4], 'b':[5,6,7,8]})
z.toeach(2, [10,20])    # z is now odict({'a':[1,2,10,4], 'b':[5,6,20,8]})
z.toeach(ind=3,val=666) #  z is now odict({'a':[1,2,10,666], 'b':[5,6,20,666]})

Shortcut for enumerate(odict.keys()).

If transpose=True, return a tuple of lists rather than a list of tuples.


Shortcut for enumerate(odict.values())

If transpose=True, return a tuple of lists rather than a list of tuples.


Alias for enumvals(). New in version 1.2.0.


Returns tuple of 3 things: index, key, value.

If transpose=True, return a tuple of lists rather than a list of tuples.

classmethod promote(obj=None)[source]#

Like promotetolist, but for odicts.


od = sc.odict.promote(['There','are',4,'keys'])

Note, in most cases sc.odict(obj) or sc.odict().make(obj) can be used instead.


Return a list of keys (as in Python 2), not a dict_keys object.


Return a list of values (as in Python 2).


Return a list of items (as in Python 2).


Return an iterator (not a list) over keys (as in Python 2).


Return an iterator (not a list) over values (as in Python 2).


Return an iterator (not a list) over items (as in Python 2).


Alias to items()

makenested(*args, **kwargs)[source]#

Alias to sc.makenested(odict); see sc.makenested() for full documentation. New in version 1.2.0.

getnested(*args, **kwargs)[source]#

Alias to sc.getnested(odict); see sc.makenested() for full documentation. New in version 1.2.0.

setnested(*args, **kwargs)[source]#

Alias to sc.setnested(odict); see sc.makenested() for full documentation. New in version 1.2.0.

iternested(*args, **kwargs)[source]#

Alias to sc.iternested(odict); see sc.makenested() for full documentation. New in version 1.2.0.